Drama and other performing arts, in addition to performing a variety of other factors that collectively shape. Including makeup, costumes, props, backdrops and lighting. Performed according to general practice, the stage sound is also included stage design department.
History of the history of the show, the stage of development the various components of art is uneven. First appeared in the most direct relationship with performance makeup, costumes and props. Source of drama in the West ─ ─ Greek drama, the costumes, masks have a significant role. At that time a play actor only two, three, to rely on constantly changing costumes and masks to play a variety of dramatic characters. Therefore, Aristotle pointed out in his discussion of Greek drama, the image of the mask maker dress up clothes and more rely on the art and the art of this dress as a Greek tragedy, one of the necessary six artistic component. The fulcrum of the first big show as props, is probably the altar of the Greek theater. If East plays Chinese opera, for example, the plastic arts is first focused on the character of the dress on. But the main use of painted Chinese opera face make-up, masks and more ghosts in the play when loaded with God; clothing pattern painting first, then switch to embroidery, with a distinctive decorative style became the special arts and crafts. Scenery is the later invention. It has a theater background from the background to the story of evolution. Theater background is in the audience on three sides by the crowd surrounded by onlookers to occur when. The first theater in the background of the Greek theater dressing shed. Actors dress in the shed and rest, shed is facing the audience, became the show's background. The first is the role of masking. After it has been found, the audience will still crude masking distracting, is not conducive to appreciate, so only a temporary dressing shed into a fixed architecture, but also be decorated. Ancient Chinese opera performances, mostly come from the mantle with a screen cover, decorative effect. Hongdong County, Shanxi Province, Yuan Ming Temple opera should mural (1324) draw the curtain in the mantle, is that such masking, decorative backgrounds, one of the early form. Japanese Noh play, the pine siding with painted backgrounds for the show. Further evolution of theater background, decorated by a simple location into a description of the plot. Modeling tools used to describe attempts to plot locations, although also a long time, but until the medieval religious drama, is still a big props similar to the local device, which can be used alone, but also can work together and use. Use of the site for background on the story depicts a large area, from the Italian Renaissance palace theater in the beginning, and then into England, France and many other Western countries. Around the actors behind these paintings of the scenery, though, or a tilting moment of viewing, but not really with the story closely, for the actor's performance is also a lack of direct help. I got to the 19th century, it oriented toward the realistic and three-dimensional development. The 20th century, people from the narrow concept of the story background tend to broad, both the realistic depiction can also be implied, a symbol, which has brought the art of diverse scenery. Western scenery is in the early 20th century by Japan into China. Light is the last to participate in performances in the shape factor. Theatrical performances were by earlier natural light, 400 to 500 years into the indoor performance theater generally only after the use of artificial lighting. First, candles and oil lamps, early 19th century began with a gas lamp, late 19th century to light. Modern stage lighting has become the theater of mechanical equipment for the unity and explanatory power of the most important and most sensitive one. Chengdu lighting and sound stage rental.
Function action drama is the art of stagecraft is always directly or indirectly, with the action to play a role.
① portray the image of the action. Actor is the direct embodiment of the image of the action. Stage performance of the object movement is very complex, realistic, with a legendary history, or who have imaginary fairy ghosts, and even the image of animals and plants. As the main man, but also because the natural conditions of social life and all the differences with different morphology, clothing and spiritual temperament. Actor's appearance with a variety of actions ranging from the size of the image with the distance between, to shorten the distance to help the actor to be transformed into the image of dress, which is the make-up, clothing basic tasks. The specific technique of expression can be divided into two types of realistic and non realistic. The former resembles a realistic attention to dress, emphasizing the accuracy of the details of characterization, which is the rise in the 19th century, mainly used for the theatrical illusion doctrine. The latter include the stylized drama of ancient techniques and modern drama of the anti-realist style, they tend to overlook some of the details, but also for others to organize the details, decorative, exaggerated, quite similar focus, pay attention to visual interest, or to the audience with grotesque impression. Because many non-realistic techniques, can adapt to the style of play, drama genre and performance styles are more broad. Stage image is not static, for actors dress should be conducive to all kinds of dynamic beauty, dance, drama with particular attention to this, such as exposing the entire leg ballet skirt, with the sleeves of the opera robes are all obvious examples .
② the organization of space and time of action. Action in a specific space and time exist, proceed. Specific space, whether as part of the temple or other building, or piazza, or modern theater proscenium stage, go through the different levels of organization, process needs to adapt to dramatic action. Such organizations include the designated performance area, arrange entrance, to provide some physical action to the actors in with support. Chinese classical opera based on the stylized approach to the organization of space. Such as the back screen at both ends of each one is playing and the actors end up as a requirement; court tables and chairs to locate a variety of forms to help the actor to complete the action. The organization of space is not only flat, but also elevation, multi-layered. Sichuan Opera "iron cage Mountain" has a scene with a table and put into a high-profile, cast from a high platform with chairs flying and even under the facade of the spatial organization plays a role in strengthening the role of emotions and actor skills. 1920s the rise of constructivist stage design, the use of a variety of platforms, stairs, slopes and other components, for the actor to the stage as "play" and "Keyboard." In the generally more realistic performances, the space structure is the same for the action of the physical environment combined with a specific description. Modern stage design for the organization of space is not limited to actors and stage actors and performers, but also on the relationship between actors and audience space to make all kinds of new treatment. Direct impact on the organization of space the speed of movement, rhythm, so it is also the time for action organization. In this light can play a significant role in the light does not provide in-kind, but it can cut space, you can highlight or hidden objects, you can use it to enhance the mobility performance of rhythm. Chengdu lighting and sound stage rental.
③ implied, depicting the action of the environment. Action space has a dual nature: both actors and audience in place, but also the actor's characters are dressed to survive the action environment. Thus, the stage action space for art organizations, in addition to the above practical action to help the actor to complete the performance, there are more or less describe the significance of the characters living environment. It is the latter sense, the decision on the physical layout of the stage can not be purely abstract, they are always to some extent with a like nature, descriptive. Basically, classical Chinese opera singing by the actors do to describe the environment, but locate the form of tables and chairs, desk chairs draped around color and patterns, and candlesticks, large accounts, water flag, Putrajaya and other props, but also plays a hint how much the environment role. Constructivist once the practical emphasis to the extreme, over-rejection stage, the image of the device, not in favor of acting. Therefore, when comparing the post-war Western line is a new form of doctrine, that "recover" some of the concrete, decorative elements, to increase the power of the story suggests the environment. To describe the environment in a prominent position is the doctrine of illusion show, appearing on the scene they require any kind of image and sound and vision, should be a historical, concrete, individualized, closely integrated with the plot. China Youth Art Theater, "Shanghai Eaves" stage design is representative of this type. Action of the environment includes the physical environment (natural or human-oriented nature) and social environment. In the drama, the hero of the social environment around him is what happened with the surrounding character of direct or indirect contact, disputes, conflicts reflected, therefore, had to rely on the social environment itself is mainly to the performance, stage design alone can not bear this task. Scenery, lighting, mainly from the perspective of the physical environment depicted in the performance of the social environment; and clothing, make-up can help as long as the character actor's social status, living conditions and their inter-relationship between the manifested, to a certain extent involved in the description of the social environment. Chengdu lighting and sound stage rental.
④ express the mood and meaning of the action. Stage Design for the action of external conditions, the external image of everything, and finally is able to transfer the action to the audience within the fantastic, the inherent implication as the highest goal. This is a modern self-conscious pursuit of the stage artists. Achieve this goal, there are two different basic tendencies: one is to express emotion features hidden in the truthful representation of objective things being; other is to make all kinds of objective things, the deformation process, so that the artist's feelings, understanding strongly manifested. Both develop in parallel, each has its advantages. In comparison, the performance of the latter tendency is active and diverse. The tendency in the performance, but also focus on the lyric, or focused on the Yu Li. Beijing People's Art Theater, "Cai Wenji," the scenery, lighting, atmosphere that is rich lyrical known. The first 3 Tomb of King Yong River, the script prompts the designer to layout the requirements of the tombstone, Shiren, Shima, pavilions and other details of all abandoned, and only a curtain curve sketched out some of the tall shadows of the trees, a few light beam the performance of understory light blue moonlight, in front of a few residual stone ramp, behind an empty black, this Kongkuo secluded forest atmosphere, with Cai Wenji's "bitter resentment I Come ho in the sky," the inner world is in harmony with together with a strong artistic charm.
Experimental Theatre performance of "The True Story of Ah Q," the stage design, not to lyrical known, and a rational spirit to win. Designer with five three-layer white linen hanging on the stage, the fabric of the absence of natural cover, but also deliberately added a lot of patches and stitching is not the rip, rag on in this line drawing with the painting method Shaoxing Water tick location. Broken location, but poor and backward, devastated the old image of China as a metaphor, it is to awaken the audience to think about the social roots of the tragedy of Ah Q. Stage artists these efforts, enabling them to create truly become a game of poetry, philosophy of visual representation, as performed ideological partners.
Characteristic stage in the whole development process of art by painting, sculpture, architecture and the profound impact of the plastic arts. Perspective on the invention of painting to promote the popularity of realistic scenery. When the sculptor to shape material to expand to the metal, plastic, plexiglass, the stage designer is also innovative ideas and shape their own means; and constructivist to the stage as the action of the machine, but of architecture, "residential living machine, "the principle of functionalism in the use of the show. Artistic achievements of various shapes, as one of the cultural soil, constantly conveying to the stage performance art methods, materials, technical aspects of the process of fresh nutrients. It can be said, the stage performance art is highly absorbing, the most open of the plastic arts. However, different from the stage as an independent art and the art of plastic art, it is in the creative process, the material reflects the role of play and art all have some special properties, mainly in:
① "Second Creation" participants. Drama is performed directly to the audience to complete their creation. The performances in the drama of the whole creative process in a "Second Creation" Before this, there "was created", that provides the script writers. For the audience, "was created" only pre-performance preparation; for artists (directors, actors, musicians, stage artists), this is the "Second Creation" basis. Stage art as a "Second Creation" in an artistic element to determine its creator ─ ─ stage artists must be creative to get the script before it can be attached to the specified subject matter, themes, rather than as an independent creator of the painter, sculptor, as the freedom to choose subject matter, determine the subject's full freedom. Stage artists all began in the understanding of the script, the script ends with the revelation never free from the script. However, they are understanding and reveal the dynamic, he can not distort the content of scripts based on the understanding that make them have their own, imagine the features can also be added to enrich for certain deficiencies in the script, you can also play on the same different from the others to make a new cast, from that point, he did not judge life lost as an artist, creatively reflects the life and performance of their own unique artistic freedom of thinking. Stage artists handled correctly in attachment and the dialectical relationship between freedom, their work can become a "second creation" of the valuable art of factors. Chengdu lighting and sound stage rental.
② In the performing arts to get the interaction of various factors, performance and vitality. A painting or a sculpture, and its expression entirely dependent on its own, nothing to fall back on. And stage performances as an element of art, always in order to perform the core elements of the various arts, the duration of the staggered network, its expression is not completely dependent on its own, but also determines it has with the performing arts dynamic relationship. In a painting, if the artist is painting a table, then it is always a table, not to change. And on stage, when the table as a neutral device, it can be because the performers have different usage and get a different sense, it may be a table, it could be bed, balcony or high slope. Performance in the spatial characteristics, either directly by the shape of the performance factors, also lies in the description of the indirect action and sound into. Kun "double down", the young monk carrying a nun □ water across the river, the river sets the stage did not describe, but when actors barefoot, just a stretch, the band sounded a cry of water gong. At this time, both in the concept of actors or the audience's eyes, bare platen will become gurgling water. This shows that modeling the combination of art and performing arts, plastic arts can be different from the freedom of expression. Therefore, the authenticity and integrity of the stage design is not in accordance with generally measured in terms of scale painting. Art in a stage drama occupies exactly how much performance components, such as whether the use of a method, it is quite abstract, neutral approach, which depends mainly on the performance of the overall structure. To the, the integrity of the stage arts, including performing arts must be included. The vitality of the stage art exists in the living link among the various arts of factors converged to make a distinctive style of performance as an organic whole, is the result of the development of modern artistic director.
③ Changes in the flow of time in space art. General painting or sculpture is pure space art, the time factor plays a role only in the appreciation of the process, but it can not change the established image. Stage design is different. As the show itself, the space dual nature, always with the performing arts scenery, lighting, costumes, make-up also with the timing. Not only the audience's appreciation of the stage art show runs through the whole process, and, as long as stage artists need to use the time factor, you can shape or character of the scene constantly changes shape. Drama "Teahouse" in three sets, the performance of the same plot locations, but there are significant changes before and after. Designers to cut through the tea room for more smaller, light color tone getting cold, the walls' Mo on affairs of state, "the bigger the piece of paper more stickers to help show reveals a theme: to bury the old days. Scenery lighting variability not only between the different sessions can also be continuity in the same field change. Shanghai Youth Repertory Theatre performance of "King of Qin Li Shimin," Layer 3 through the retractable telescopic platform that can lift the 11 of the screen, creating activities for the performance space. When Yin Royal Prince Li Jiancheng the same plot, the deep dark of the bar screen has fallen to a very small space, packed to create the atmosphere of living in the hidden chamber; and when to appear before the emperor Li Yuan Yin Royal, with the Yin to the Royal depths of the stage went, layer by layer of screen rises, and finally exposing the Throne Li Yuan sitting watching dance scene. Broad and deep space, decorated with silver flash of the screen section, gorgeous costumes and props, showing a guarded and luxurious. This is just a dozen seconds of uninterrupted action changes that have occurred. Organizations at the time of this picture brought a sense of rhythm and beauty, are easel paintings are not only the stage arts to do so.
④ artistic imagination and craft, science and technology combination. Implementation stage is not art on paper, canvas or model, but in the three-dimensional space on the stage, in the performance process, which determines the diversity of its media tools and process specificity. For stage artists, as long as help realize their artistic ideas, all materials can be used, and always try to use cheap materials, lightweight materials to achieve the best viewing. The crown jewel of the beans can be used instead of nail polish painted, crystal chandeliers available Guanghua flown in clear plastic clip with a porosity of paper production. No stage production and operations departments of the craftsmen, artists, whimsy only on paper. For media materials, there are two basic attitudes: First, the nature of cover material, so that bear a close resemblance in the reproduction of the object; the other is a conscious means of exposure to media, to its original shape, color, texture as the creation of the United States artistic language. Modern industrial and technological development, the stage is to provide artists more and more new material. Drama, "Forget Me Not" in the living room scene, done with fiberglass doors, windows, the use of its transparency and its place in the glow of bright light, color, adds to the contemporary scene. Of course not only the new material go, the old material out of new ideas can also be used to, such as white linen in the "Story of Ah Q" in use. Advances in stage arts, is often due to new achievements in science and technology a powerful support. No electrical invention, there can be modern theater lighting systems and mechanical systems. Currently, lighting reforms, new lighting, electronic control and laser, holograms, etc., theatrical stage appearance will bring new changes. However, the play is not solely on the basis of technology, tools, technology itself can not produce masterpieces of art, exquisite stagecraft mainly have to rely on the designer's imagination and talent. Chengdu lighting and sound stage rental.