First, the role of the art of light
(A), the light origin of art the sun, moon, stars and fire along with the primitive life, alternating sun and sunset, day and night cycle, primitive bathing in the light of the development of next generation reproduction. Used in the invention of fire, mankind has entered a new stage of civilization, fire not only for lighting, heating, barbecue food, the evening, primitive people around the fire, raised his torch carnival dance, a picture of piles of shiny red fire joy and the joy of the face, constitute a string of fiery serpents dragon dancing torch, the light which is composed of early human art of the original prototype of the light.
With the fire, candles, oil lamps, gas lamps, lights and other artificial sources of invention, one after another of human civilization across the stage to the current era of high-tech lighting, artificial lighting technology since the rapid development and popularity of artificial light, people's nightlife become more and more colorful, light art as a new visual art form, to decorate people's living space more beautiful. In the modern environmental design, theatrical arts, design, interior decoration, etc., light art has been widely applied.
(B), light the artistic charm of light The role of human visual function play an extremely important, because without light there is no feeling of light and shade and color, can not see everything. Light not only the human visual object shape, space, color, physical needs, but also beautify the environment will be an indispensable material conditions. Light can form space, but also to change the space; both to beautify the space, but also damage to space. Different light not only illuminated a variety of space, but also to create a different mood atmosphere of space and atmosphere. The same space, if the different lighting, different location, orientation angle, different lighting design, different light intensity and color, can get a variety of visual spatial effect: when the bright and spacious, if sometimes dull depression; sometimes warm and comfortable, and sometimes irritability; sometimes festive and cheerful, sometimes eerie; sometimes warm, welcoming, sometimes cold and indifferent; sometimes full of romance, sometimes resulting in the mysterious feeling, etc., the charm of light can be described as unpredictable.
In the light, and things will produce levels of light and shade and shadow change the interface, and gives three-dimensional visual. If you change the source of the spectral composition, flux, light intensity, location and direction of the project will produce color, light and shade, shades, actual situation, outline a variety of interface changes, this is the art of rendering the use of light atmosphere and heighten environmental art an important character means. As a photographic picture, If you take the top direct sunlight illumination, then, face gives a cold, serious, dark feeling; If you take the ramp above the hemi-lighting, chiseled face then gives outgoing, smart and competent feeling; If you take the astigmatism lighting with multiple light sources, then, gives easygoing, happy feeling; if the orientation of direct lighting, it would be to terror, cruelty, anger, feeling. LightScribe is a new form of contemporary plastic arts, the artists use glass, ice, transparent plastic material of various shapes and light fixtures, light exposure from internal or external, through the projection of light transmission, refraction, reflection and other physical features full, brilliant three-dimensional art form, but also the use of small colored light bulbs, lamp beads, neon, fiber optics and other light materials, direct form colorful patterns of light images.
Co-ordinated by the lighting and music to create an integrated art in the modern art of performing arts and the environment is very popular, such as modern rock singers, the use of lighting and shade, color, intensity, changing the color of the stage, so fans revel in a fast-paced like a surreal dream world. Another example, also used for lighting and music with the musical fountain, piazza, dance halls, skating rinks and commercial buildings and other environmental art atmosphere rendering, designers use computer-controlled lighting and music programmed, the rhythm of the music synchronized with the light the strength and swaying to gain sound, light, color integrated artistic effect.
Second, the principle form of light
(A), three laws were mixed shade the eyes not only to produce a monochromatic color vision, but also for the mixed light can also produce the same color vision. For example, 520 nm monochromatic light green felt to stimulate the human eye, the 510 nm and 530 nm monochromatic light mix to stimulate the human eye can also produce the green felt; Another example is the 580 nm monochromatic light stimulation of the human eye produces a yellow felt, to 700 nanometers and 510 nanometers of red light green light mix to stimulate the human eye can also produce yellow felt, and the human eye can not see any difference between the two. Spectrum is an additive color mixing shade mixed with three kinds of primary colors of light: red (R), green (G), blue (B), by mixing can be white light or any of the light spectrum. Glassman will be grouped into three colored light mixing phenomenon Law: fill light law, middle color Tianjin, instead of law.
Law of complementary colors - each has a different shade mixed with it and produce a white shade, shade as the two complementary shade. For example, blue and yellow, green and purple, red mixed with glaucoma can produce white light.
The middle of law - two non-fill can not produce white light shade mix, the mixed result is in between the middle of the shade. For example, red and green, according to the mixing ratio will be different, and to in between the orange, yellow, yellow orange and other shade.
Instead of law - the colors look the same but by a different spectral composition. As long as the feeling is similar to the color, can substitute each other. For example, the color shade of light A = B, C = shade Shade D, then A + C = B + D; and if A + B = C, and X + Y = B, then A + (X + Y) = C, such as: A (yellow) = B (red + green), C (glaucoma) = D (blue + green), A (yellow) + C (glaucoma) = B (red + green) + D (blue + green), the result is A (yellow) + C (glaucoma) = light green light, B (red + green) + D (blue + green) = red + green + blue + green = white + green = light green light. This is the place of law. It is in color optics a very important law of modern color science as a theoretical basis is established. Shade is the law of additive color mixture mixed with dyes, pigments mixed the contrary, the latter for the subtractive mixing, the mixing rules are exactly the opposite.
(B), RGB color mixing of light physical theory additive color mixing theory to prove, red, green, and blue light produce white light when mixed equal; equal mixture of red and green produce yellow; red and Blu-ray equivalent mixing magenta; equal mixture of green and blue produce glaucoma. If the letters R, G, B, Y, M, C, W represent the red, green, blue, yellow, magenta, blue, white, you can mix the results obtained by the following formula:
Green (2G) + red (2R) → yellow (Y) red (2R) + blue (2B) → product red (M) blue (2B) + green (2G) → glaucoma ( C)
Red (2R) + green (2G) + blue (2B) → white (W) if the ratio of two to one the three primary colors of light mixed with the following results:
Red (2R) + green (1G) → orange red (1R) + green (2G) → yellow red (2R) + Blu-ray (1B) → Eosin
Red (1R) + blue (2B) → purple green (2G) + Blu-ray (1B) → green green (1G) + blue (2B) → Sky Blue
As yellow, magenta, green, respectively red, green, blue light between the color, it can also be expressed as: 2R + Y = 2R + (2R +2 G) = 4R +2 G → 2R + G (orange)
2G + Y = 2G + (2R +2 G) = 4G +2 R → 2G + R (yellow) 2R + M = 2R + (2B +2 R) = 4R +2 B → 2R + B (eosin)
2B + M = 2B + (2B +2 R) = 4B +2 R → 2B + R (purple) 2G + C = 2G + (2B +2 G) = 4G +2 B → 2G + B (green)
2B + C = 2B + (2B +2 G) = 4B +2 G → 2B + G (sky blue) shown in Figure 45, where the equilateral triangle through the center of each color relative to the two complementary color relationship, the mixed results are as follows:
Blu-ray (2B) + yellow (2G +2 R) = 2B +2 G +2 R → white sky blue (2B + G) + orange light (R + G) = 2B +2 G +2 R → white
Glaucoma (2B +2 G) + red (2R) = 2B +2 G +2 R → white green (2G + B) + Eosin (2R + B) = 2B +2 G +2 R → white
Green (2G) + magenta (2B +2 R) = 2B +2 G +2 R → white yellow-green (2G + R) + Purple (2B + R) = 2B +2 G +2 R → white
Third, the design principles
1. The principle of functional lighting design must meet the functional requirements, depending on space, on different occasions, different objects and choose a different way of lighting fixtures, and to ensure proper illumination and brightness. For example: the conference hall of the lighting design should be vertical illumination, the brightness distribution requirements to avoid glare, should use comprehensive general lighting; store windows and merchandise displays to attract customers, the general focus on exposure to strong light stress product image, its brightness higher than the average illumination three to five times, in order to strengthen the product dimension, texture and advertising effects, often using strong directional lighting and the use of colored light to enhance the artistic appeal of commodities.
(2) the principle of aesthetics is decorative lighting and landscaping to create an important means of artistic atmosphere. Decoration of interior space in order to increase the space level, rendering the atmosphere of the use of decorative lighting, decorative lighting is very important to use. In modern home construction, entertainment buildings, commercial buildings and recreational environment for building design, lighting has become the integral part. Lighting to ensure lighting is not only play a role, but also very particular about its shape, material, color, proportion, scale, lighting has become an indispensable interior space of the decorations. Lighting designer through the light and shade, excitement, circumflex, strength and other rhythmic control, give full play to the brilliant light and color effects, the use of transmission, reflection, refraction and other means to create a warm and soft, quiet and elegant, pleasing romantic, glorious, magnificent, happy happy, fast-paced, mysterious, bewildering art of exotic atmosphere, the living environment for people to add rich taste.
3 Economic Principles lighting is not necessarily to mostly good, with a strong win, the key is scientific and rational. Lighting designed to meet the physical and the visual aesthetic and psychological needs, so that interior space to embody the practical value and appreciate the value and use of functional and aesthetic features to achieve the unity. Fancy lighting not only can not be icing on the cake, but superfluous, also causing power consumption, energy waste and economic loss, or even cause light pollution to the detriment of their health.
The brightness of the lighting standard, because the clarity of purpose and distinguish between different requirements, selection criteria vary. Japanese Industrial Standard now use a variety of public buildings in the light intensity standards described below, for reference only. (See table later) \ m! gqK Citrus medica) _
4 Security Policy lighting design requirements absolutely safe and reliable. As the light from the power supply must be taken strictly against electric shock, anti-circuit and other security measures to avoid accidents.
(A) the lighting of the expression
1 surface light just means the performance of interior ceiling surface, walls and floor made of light-emitting surface. Ceiling light in the optical characteristics of a uniform, well lit, showing a variety of forms. Such as the use of fluorescent ceiling light density required to be consistent to ensure adequate lighting for each space; and if a large area with a ceiling lamp, ceiling lamp bull's-eye on a regular, like the night sky dotted; Another example is the structure with ceiling beams, designed as a light well, _
Light from the cell injection wells, resulting in a unique spatial effect. Wall light is generally used for the exhibition. The walls made of hollow double Jiaqiang, the wall facing the display side walls made of light, of which there are a number of embedded bezel, set to vote after the light box unit to form a luminous exhibition wall. Belong to such a large light box advertising light.
The ground floor just to the ground made of light, usually dance floor set, colorful light-emitting flooring, lighting and color along with the electronic sound of rhythm and synchronization changes, greatly enhanced the atmosphere of the theater arts.
(2) with a light show with just the light source arrangement of the so-called bar of light with the growth. Diverse forms, a square, lattice-shaped, strip, stripe-shaped, circular (annular, oval), triangles and other polygons. Such as the surrounding ceiling light with a planar, concave-type band of light around the ceiling, ceiling light with a type within the box, inside the box with a recessed ceiling light type, light band around the floor, the floor inside the box with a light, ring light with the floor, on the cast light tank, recessed ceiling light tank, foot concave light tank and so on. Strip light with a certain orientation, many public places in the flow is often used as a design-oriented environment, lighting, and other geometric shaped band of light generally for decorative purposes. And Centers T Gan _! Zhi?
3-point performance point of light just means the scope of investment and small and focused light sources. Because of its strong light brightness, mostly for the dining room, bedroom, study, and windows, stage lighting or other places direct focus of light. Point light technique of expression varied, with the top light, bottom light, smooth light, backlight, side and so on.
Top light - top-down lighting, similar to the midday summer sunlight. Light object projection is small, strong chiaroscuro, is not appropriate for modeling light. Light at the end - the bottom-up lighting, should be assisted with light.
Shun the light - from the front of the lighting, projection plain, light color objects appear completely, but three-dimensional feel bad. Backlight - from behind the lighting, illumination of objects outside the chiseled, with artistic charm of the silhouette effect, is the art of photography and the stage canopy in common with light way.
Side light - light from the left and right and left, upper right, lower left, lower right corner to the light, clear light the object projection, three-dimensional sense of strong, rich layers, is one of the most acceptable way of illumination.
4 still lights still light and mobile lighting - lamps fixed and static light, flashing light does not appear as a still light. Most indoor lighting using static lighting, this lighting approach can take full advantage of solar energy, and create a stable, soft, harmonious light atmosphere, suitable for schools, factories, office buildings, shopping malls, exhibitions and other places.
Mobile light - the mobile way of lighting, it has a rich artistic expression, is the neon stage lighting and urban design in common means. If the stage using the "Spot Light", chasing the actors move, and if for advertising lighting, constant flow of flashing neon lights, frequently change the color, not only highlights the artistic image, artistic atmosphere, and rendering the environment.
5 laser laser beam emitted by the laser. Laser beam generated media are crystal, glass, gases (such as argon, krypton, helium-neon mixture, etc.) and dye solution. Some gas lasers as a light source for lighting art, including helium-neon laser is the most commonly used, it produces red monochromatic light; argon ion lasers produce blue-green light and green light, two wavelengths of light through the diffraction grating separation, the formation of two beams of monochromatic light of different colors.
Different dye laser wavelengths can be produced as needed in the 400 ~ 750mm of any kind of laser. But is a pulse dye laser working device, it must rely for its laser or electronic flash drive source. _
(C), lamp types and artistic effects lighting with new technologies and the rapid development of materials, color variety, shaped, light, color, shape, quality can be described as enormous, not only for people's lives lamps provide lighting conditions, interior design and is an important finishing touch. Lighting installation can be divided according to the following types. _
Suspension type - known as the chandelier. There is a general chandelier for general interior space; lantern, tall lobby space for luxury; lanterns, generally used for a traditional classical style of the hall; scalability chandelier, with retractable metal conduit or flexible chain for hanging with, within a certain range can be adjusted according to the height of lamps.
Ceiling class - close to the ceiling lamps. Protruding-type ceiling, a wider application of these lamps, you can use a single lamp, can also be used in combination, the former suitable for small space, which applies to a larger space; embedded ceiling lamp, ceiling lamps embedded , the combination gives the feeling of Star fan photos.
Wall type - attached to wall and wall with cantilever type two, mounted on walls and pillars. Rich decorative wall design requirements for all kinds of space. Floor lamps - floor lamps are also known, is the home living room, living room, hotel rooms, reception room and other space the local lighting is one of furnishings, decorative role of space.
Lamp - is located in Taiwan, table, coffee table, the local short cabinet lighting fixtures, but also the modern home furnishings in one of the major and interesting in modern hotels, the lamp has become a distinctive decorative lighting means.
Special lamps - specially made for a variety of lighting fixtures, such as for stage performances of track lights, back lights, floodlights canopy, rotating lights, light beams, meteor lights.
(D), lighting design case study lighting design must be based on the use of premises, function, use the object may be, lamp selection, lighting installation, lighting, artistic and other communication methods are different, standards and scales are difficult to unity, the basis of the information overview below for reference. Table 29, 30.
Fourth, the stage lighting design in the nascent period of human ancestors living in caves during the day with the sun, moon and fire heard at night with song and dance, celebrating the victory, it is mankind's most primitive stage lighting.
With the development of human civilization, the stage lighting from the fire, candles, oil lamps, gas lamps, the development of advanced power sources, constantly updated lighting equipment, lighting technology has become more scientific, artistic colorful stage lighting.
Today's dominate the masters of the stage lighting is lighting design
Stage lighting design must have the light of the principle of additive mixing. Clever use of lighting designer red, green, blue, and white shade, light intensity and mixed by the ratio of the amount of light changes, you can create a variety of desired shade.
Stage lighting lamps in addition to general lighting outside, special lamps are designed for stage performances of the track lights, back lights, floodlights canopy, rotating lights, light beams, meteor lights, each light can create different artistic atmosphere.
Laser is the new light of modern stage lighting. The so-called laser beam emitted by the laser, a laser beam is composed of several wavelengths of light parallel light, it is usually faster than conventional light source beam intensity is much greater power, so the laser in the art of stage lighting has been widely application. Such as modern dance hall or a large movement of the laser beam each other strongly, twinkling, stirring rock music and modern dance, so mesmerized singer, dancer and dance music fans immersed in an ocean and the atmosphere of the art fanatic in. Light color and music coordination to obtain the sound, light and color ever comprehensive artistic effect.
Fifth, neon art and design is the use of gas-discharge neon glow lamps. The slender curved glass made from a variety of shapes required for graphics, and then removing the tube filled with air and a small amount of inert gas such as argon or neon, power, the color of light can be issued. Light body color varies with the inflation, if the charge is sent into a neon orange shade; if filled with argon gas and mercury are given a mixture of blue light; if filled with a mixture of neon and mercury gas is given green light . In order to get more color, but also in the glass tube wall coated with a different fluorescent substances.
Neon light box art has been widely used in advertising, signs mark, window design, exhibition design, and other decorative arts. Modern city at night in neon lights and other ornaments of dress decorative lightning, the tall buildings like girls that wear evening dress costumes, even more beautiful and moving, full of charm; those bustling business district, the joy of entertainment is more crowded; old face quiet, lonely streets into a sense of the times that never sleeps. Decorated with neon lights and electro-optical light can be described as the art of drawing, which depicts the modern city was so beautiful colorful.
Neon decorative color design principle for additive color mixing, color as light source direct to the human eye, when illuminated with intermittent light off constantly changing, it is easy to produce stunning visual disability and fatigue as the cause, the neon light color design must pay attention to two aspects: first, in order to reduce eye fatigue, a variety of shade must establish a certain order of the spectrum, so a strong light stimulus with a sense of order to increase soft; second, neon-point conversion off the time interval must choose the best time than the use of time increased the rhythm of a comfortable rhythm.